Frequently Asked Questions

Oxygen imaging is a technology that allows spatial representation of oxygen concentration in tissues and live animals. O2M's oxygen imaging technology works on the principles of patented pulse electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) technology. EPR oxygen imaging can reliably map three dimensional oxygen concentration in vitro and in vivo non-invasively with high precision, high resolution and fast. Hence, oxygen imaging is distinct from oxygen tension measurement techniques like pulse oximetry, electrodes, or oxygen-quenching luminescence - which provide single point values.

Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) is a technique to detect unpaired electron spins placed under a constant uniform magnetic field (in the range of 9-25 mT), manipulated by pulse radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation in the range of 250 MHz to 750 MHz. EPR was first observed in Kazan State University by Soviet physicist Yevgeny Zavoisky in 1944. The technology is similar to MRI principles. Under an external magnetic field, paramagnetic electrons will align in parallel or antiparallel to the vector of the field. Under resonance conditions, two momentary elevated energy states are created in paramagnetic electrons. The dynamics of spin state energies can be probed by pulse radiofrequency fields.

EPR oxygen imaging (EPROI) is an established  noninvasive method to map absolute oxygen values within ~0.5 mm resolution. EPROI measures electron spin relaxation maps of a water-soluble oxygen-reporting trityl OX071 molecule. Trityl spin probes have an unpaired electron which directly collides with valence electrons in molecular oxygen. This interaction changes the spin-spin- and spin-lattice relaxation rate of the probe by Heisenberg spin exchange. There is a linear relationship between pO2 and trityl relaxation rates. This linear relationship is used for mapping oxygen, which is the basis of EPROI.

JIVA-25™ is a first-of-its-kind preclinical oxygen imager. Biomaterial samples, cell encapsulation devices, artificial tissue grafts, and small rodent disease models can be imaged with JIVA-25™. The maximum sample size that can be imaged on JIVA-25™ is 40 mm in diameter and 32 mm in length.

JIVA-25™ provides both average oxygen over the sample volume as well as three dimensional oxygen maps.

Yes. JIVA-25™ can measure oxygen in various biomaterials so long as there is no metal component. The examples include but are not limited to, gelatin, agarose, alginate, etc.

Samples can be as small as 400µg of cell suspension to as large as 40g small rodents.

JIVA-25 can not perform oxygen imaging in humans.

25 millitesla (mT).

CAELI-9™ is a 9 mT human-size  prototype under development. Currently, it is not available for purchase.

We have several collaborative projects in the US and abroad. You can read our recent publications here.

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